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Homeland Security
Part 1 Homeland security
Homeland security refers to governmental actions designed to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from acts of terrorism, and also respond to natural disasters. The term became prominent in the United States following the September 11, 2001 attacks; it had been used only in limited policy circles prior to 9/11. Before this time, such action had been classified as civil defense.
Homeland security is officially defined as "a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur," according to the National Strategy for Homeland Security.Because the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) includes the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) it has responsibility for preparedness, response and recovery to natural disasters as well.

Homeland security is generally used to refer to the broad national effort by all levels of government--federal, state, local and tribal--to protect the territory of the United States from hazards both internal and external as well as the Department of Homeland Security itself.

Homeland security is also usually used to connote the civilian aspect of this effort; "homeland defense" refers to its military component, led chiefly by the US Northern Command headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colo.

The scope of homeland security includes:

  • Emergency preparedness and response (for both terrorism and natural disasters), including volunteer medical, police, Emergency Management and fire personnel;
  • Domestic intelligence activities, largely today within the FBI;
  • Critical infrastructure protection;
  • Border security, including both land and maritime borders;
  • Transportation security, including aviation and maritime transportation;
  • Biodefense;
  • Detection of nuclear and radiological materials;
  • Research on next-generation security technologies.
In the United States
In the United States, the concept of "homeland security" extends and recombines responsibilities of much of the executive branch, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the National Guard, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the United States Coast Guard, the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the former U.S. Customs Service, the Secret Service, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The George W. Bush administration has consolidated many of these activities under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), a new cabinet department established as a result of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. However, much of the nation's homeland security activity remains outside of DHS; for example, the FBI and CIA are not part of the Department, and other agencies such as the Department of Defense and Department of Health and Human Services play a significant role in certain aspects of homeland security. Homeland security is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council, currently headed by Frances Townsend.
Outside the United States
Other nations around the world have also reorganized government activities consistent with homeland security. For example, in 2003 Canada created a Ministry of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness led by Deputy Prime Minister Anne McLellan. Many European nations' homeland security efforts are led by their interior ministries, and they are increasingly coordinating their homeland security activities at the European Commission. The Labor Party in Australia has called for the creation of an Australian Department of Homeland Security, but the Liberal Party-led government has opposed this move.
See also
Aviation Security
Michael Chertoff
Civil defense
Brian Michael Jenkins
Harvey E. Johnson, Jr. - United States Coast Guard
National Incident Management System
National Response Plan
National security
Port security
Tom Ridge
Supply Chain Security
United States Civil Defense
United States Department of Homeland Security
United States Department of Homeland Security
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), commonly known as Homeland Security, is a Cabinet department of the Federal Government of the United States with the responsibility of protecting the territory of the United States from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters.
Whereas the Department of Defense is charged with military actions abroad, the Department of Homeland Security works in the civilian sphere to protect the United States within, at, and outside its borders. Its goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism.
With approximately 184,000 employees, DHS is the third largest cabinet department in the U.S. federal government after the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council, with Frances Townsend as the Homeland Security Advisor. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Energy.
Initial efforts after 9/11
On September 20, 2001, in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, President George W. Bush announced the establishment of an Office of Homeland Security (OHS) to coordinate "homeland security" efforts, to be headed by Governor Tom Ridge with the title of Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. The name is reminiscent of the British WW2-era Department of Home Security. The official announcement stated:
The mission of the Office will be to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office will coordinate the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.

Former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge took up his duties as OHS director on October 8, 2001.

The Homeland Security Advisory System scale
On March 12, 2002, the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS), a color-coded terrorism risk advisory scale, was created as a Presidential Directive to provide a "comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." Many procedures at government facilities are keyed off of the alert level; for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. Since January 2003, it has been administered in coordination with the DHS; it has also been the target of frequent jokes and ridicule on the part of the administration's detractors about its perceived ineffectiveness. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he didn't always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies.
In January 2003, the office was merged into the Department of Homeland Security and the White House Homeland Security Council, both of which were created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The Homeland Security Council, similar in nature to the National Security Council, retains a policy coordination and advisory role and is led by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.
Creation of DHS
The department was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. After months of discussion about employee rights and benefits and "rider" portions of the bill, it was signed into law by U.S. President George W. Bush. It was intended to consolidate U.S. executive branch organizations related to "homeland security" into a single cabinet agency. Ridge was named secretary on January 24, 2003 and began naming his chief deputies. DHS officially began operations on January 24, 2003, but most of the department's component agencies were not transferred into the new Department until March 1.

It was the largest government reorganization in 50 years (since the United States Department of Defense was created).

After establishing the basic structure of DHS and working to integrate its components and get the department functioning, Ridge announced his resignation on November 30, 2004, following the re-election of President Bush. Bush initially nominated former NYPD commissioner Bernard Kerik as his successor, but on December 10, Kerik withdrew his nomination citing personal reasons and saying it "would not be in the best interests" of the country for him to pursue the post. On January 11, 2005, President Bush nominated federal judge Michael Chertoff to succeed Ridge. Chertoff was confirmed on February 15, 2005, by a vote of 98–0 in the U.S. Senate. He was sworn in the same day.
Controversy about adoption centered on whether the FBI and the CIA should be incorporated in part or in whole (both were not). The bill itself was also controversial for the presence of unrelated riders, as well as eliminating some standard civil service and labor protections from employees of the department. President Bush wanted the right to fire an employee within Homeland Security immediately for security reasons, for incompetence, or insubordination. Then-Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle wanted an appeals process that could take up to 18 months or as little as one month. A federal court injunction has blocked many aspects of the new personnel system as they relate to employee pay and discipline. Plans to proceed with the performance management aspects of the system are continuing.
Organization
DHS Organizational Chart
Directorates

Major Agencies

As part of the reorganization within the department, on March 1, 2004 the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was created. The idea behind was to provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State. local and tribal governments. Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-5 all Federal departments were required to adopt the NIMS and to use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation program and activities. A few months later in December 2004 the National Response Plan (NRP) was created, in an attempt to align Federal coordination structures, capabilities, and resources into a unified, all-discipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incident management. The NRP was built on the template of the NIMS.
Headquarters
Since its inception, the Department has had its temporary headquarters in Washington, D.C.'s Nebraska Avenue Complex, a naval facility.No permanent headquarters location has been chosen yet, though rumors have circulated that the Federal government will construct a new headquarters for the Department near the old General Hospital complex in Southeast Washington.
Grants
DHS provides grants through a variety of programs to states, localities, first responders, and universities.
CREATE - Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events - the first university center of excellence funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, is an interdisciplinary national research center based at the University of Southern California. The Center comprises a team of experts from across the country, including partnerships with New York University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Ready.gov
Soon after the formation of Department of Homeland Security, the Martin Agency of Richmond, Virginia provided pro bono work to create "Ready.gov", a readiness website. The site and materials were conceived as early as March 2002 but were launched in February of 2003, just before the launch of the Iraq War. One of the first announcements that garnered widespread public attention to this campaign was one by Tom Ridge in which he stated that in the case of a chemical attack, citizens should use duct tape and plastic sheeting to build a homemade bunker, or "sheltering in place"to protect themselves. As a result, the sales of duct tape skyrocketed and DHS received criticism that they were being too alarmist.
Criticism
The Department of Homeland Security has been dogged by pesistent criticism over excessive bureaucracy, waste, and ineffectiveness. In 2003, the department came under fire after the media revealed that Laura Callahan, Deputy Chief Information Officer at DHS with responsibilities for sensitive national security databases, had in fact obtained her advanced computer science degrees through a diploma mill in a small town in Wyoming. The department was blamed for up to $2 billion of waste and fraud after audits by the Government Accountability Office revealed widespread misuse of government credit cards by DHS employees, with purchases including beer brewing kits, $70,000 of plastic dog booties that were later deemed unusable, boats purchased at double the retail price many of which later could not be found, and iPods ostensibly for use in "data storage".
The department's initial response to Hurricane Katrina was castigated by its critics as inadequate, a charge later acknowledged by the Bush administration. Following the discovery by British authorities in August 2006 of a plot to destroy commercial airliners using liquid explosives, it was revealed that DHS had consistently failed to spend research and development money on new airport screening methods, and that funds for explosive detection equipment were re-routed by the Bush Administration to cover budget shortfalls elsewhere. In August 2006, a bipartisan group of Senators on the Appropriations Committee described the Sciences & Technology Directorate, the research arm of DHS, as a "rudderless ship without a clear way to get back on course".
See also
Michael Chertoff
Tom Ridge
Jake Brahm
Brian Doyle
Bernard Kerik
Hurricane Katrina
Container Security Initiative
Homeland Security Advisory System
United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT)
Category:Disaster preparedness in the United States
Subcategories

There are 3 subcategories to this category shown below (more may be shown on subsequent pages).

E
Emergency Alert System
F
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Fire departments of the United States
Pages in category "Disaster preparedness in the United States"
There are 45 pages in this section of this category.
9 F cont. N cont.
9/11 (radio communications) Forsythe Associates New York City Office of Emergency Management
A G
Amateur Radio Emergency Service Government Emergency Telecommunications Service Nuclear war survival skills
Area code 710 O
B H Office of Emergency Management
Joseph F. Bruno Homeland Security Advisory System R
C Homeland Security Council Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service
Civil Defense Geiger Counters I S
Continuity of Operations Plan Incident Command System Seismic Hazards Mapping Act
Continuity of government L Site R
D LiveProcess Skywarn
Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 Local Mitigation Strategy Southern Search & Rescue
Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team M Survival Under Atomic Attack
Mount Weather T
Duck and Cover (film) Multi-agency Coordination The Greenbrier
Duck and cover Multi-agency Coordination (MAC) System Unified Command (ICS)
Duct tape alert N U
Disaster Medical Assistance Team NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards United States Department of Homeland Security
E National Audiovisual Conservation Center
Emergency Response Information Network National Disaster Medical System United States civil defense
National Incident Management System W
F National Response Plan Julian Stanley Wise
Fallout Protection Nationwide Wireless Priority Service
Category:Emergency management
This category is for general articles and categories about the theory and management of disasters and emergencies. For articles and categories about individual disasters, see Category:Disasters, for articles and categories about the phenomena causing disasters, see Category:Hazards.
Subcategories

There are 10 subcategories to this category shown below (more may be shown on subsequent pages).

B D cont. H
Business continuity and disaster recovery Disaster preparedness Hazards
C Disasters R
Civil defense E Risk
D Emergency laws S
Disaster management tools Emergency services Disaster stubs
Pages in category "Emergency management"
There are 42 pages in this section of this category.
* E cont. P
Emergency management Emergency evacuation Pacific Disaster Center
A Extreme value theory Portable water purification
Act of God F Preparedness
C Florida Division of Emergency Management S
Caging the Dragon G State of emergency
Cataclysm Government Emergency Telecommunications Service U
Catastrophe modeling UK Government Decontamination Service
Civil defense H
Comprehensive Emergency Management HAZUS Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator
D Health risks from dead bodies
Deep ecology Historical examples of large/mass evacuations of areas
Disaster area United States Department of Homeland Security
Disaster convergence Humanitarian-FOSS
Disaster informatics I United States civil defense
Disaster research Incident Command System V
Disaster tourism International Early Warning Programme Vial of Life
E K Volcano Disaster Assistance Program
Emergency Response Guidebook Kirk's Fire Investigation W
M Waterways Experiment Station
MARSEC World Conference on Disaster Reduction
N
National Response Plan Irma Wyman
Nationwide Wireless Priority Service
Non-refoulement
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