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PROSPERITY CONSULTING GROUP

Architect – Engineer - Planner

18501 Vidora Dr. #A Rowland Hts, Ca 91748

www.e-Architect.us

www.e-Engineer.us

www.e-Planner.us

PROSPERITY CONSULTING GROUP

Architect – Engineer - Planner

18501 Vidora Dr. #A Rowland Hts, Ca 91748

www.e-Architect.us

www.e-Engineer.us

www.e-Planner.us

Prosperity Consulting Group 2005, All rights Reserved Prosperity Consulting Group 2005.

Transportation Engineering (*)
Timber Design (*)
Design Procedures (*)
Engineering Drafting & Design ( I & II ) (*)
Construction Process and Cost Estimating (*)
Traffic Planning & Economics (*)
Surveying (*)
*Courses Taught by George K. Chou at Northrop University
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American Institute of Chemical Engineers Online Chemical Engineering Information

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the Internet Guide to engineering, Mathematics and Computing

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McGraw-Hill's Best Basic Engineering Series and Tools
Power generation
Power generation and co-generation applications require highly durable catalysts capable of operating over 8000 hours per year without the need for significant maintenance. Design features for easy access and maintenance of the catalyst elements are of critical importance. DCL offers a variety of oxidation and three-way catalyst products designed for the tough specifications of power generation equipment packagers and operators.
MINE-X® catalytic converters and catalytic silencers are designed for engines 700 hp (528 kW) and smaller. For product information on these designs see Catalytic Converters and Silencers for Stationary Engines (Below 700 hp).
QUICK-LID ® catalytic converters and catalytic silencers are designed for engines larger than 700 hp (528 kW). For product information on these designs see Catalytic Converters and Silencers for Stationary Engines (Above 700 hp)
Replacement catalyst elements are available in short lead times for all DCL housings and for those of other housing manufacturers Catalyst Elements and Substrates.
The control of diesel particulate matter is of increasing importance in diesel powered generators. DCL’s wall-flow particulate filters can be scaled in size to fit most high and mid speed diesel engines used in power generation. For more product information see Diesel Particulate Filters-Wall Flow.
History
Centralised power generation became possible when it was recognized that alternating current power lines can transport electricity at very low costs across great distances by taking advantage of the ability to raise and lower the voltage using power transformers.
Electricity has been generated at central stations since 1881. The first power plants were run on water power or coal,[4] and today we rely mainly on coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydroelectric, and petroleum with a small amount from solar energy, tidal harnesses, wind generators, and geothermal sources.
Methods of generating electricity
There are seven fundamental methods of directly transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy:
Static electricity was the first form discovered and investigated, and the electrostatic generator is still used even in modern devices such as the Van de Graaff generator and MHD generators. Electrons are mechanically separated and transported to increase their electric potential.
The direct conversion of nuclear energy to electricity by beta decay is used only on a small scale. In a full-size nuclear power plant, the heat of a nuclear reaction is used to run a heat engine. This drives a generator, which converts mechanical energy into electricity by magnetic induction.

Most electric generation is driven by heat engines. The combustion of fossil fuels supplies most of the heat to these engines, with a significant fraction from nuclear fission and some from renewable sources. The modern steam turbine invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884 - today generates about 80 percent of the electric power in the world using a variety of heat sources.

Turbines
All turbines are driven by a fluid acting as an intermediate energy carrier. Many of the heat engines just mentioned are turbines. Other types of turbines can be driven by wind or falling water.
Sources includes:
  • Steam - Water is boiled by:
    • nuclear fission,
    • the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, or petroleum). In hot gas (gas turbine), turbines are driven directly by gases produced by the combustion of natural gas or oil. Combined cycle gas turbine plants are driven by both steam and natural gas. They generate power by burning natural gas in a gas turbine and use residual heat to generate additional electricity from steam. These plants offer efficiencies of up to 60%.
    • Renewables. The steam generated by:
      • Biomass
      • The sun as the heat source: solar parabolic troughs and solar power towers concentrate sunlight to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then used to produce steam.
      • Geothermal power. Either steam under pressure emerges from the ground and drives a turbine or hot water evaporates a low boiling liquid to create vapour to drive a turbine.
  • Other renewable sources:
    • Water (hydroelectric) - Turbine blades are acted upon by flowing water, produced by hydroelectric dams or tidal forces.
    • Wind - Most wind turbines generate electricity from naturally occurring wind. Solar updraft towers use wind that is artificially produced inside the chimney by heating it with sunlight, and are more properly seen as forms of solar thermal energy.
Reciprocating engines
Small electricity generators are often powered by reciprocating engines burning diesel, biogas or natural gas. Diesel engines are often used for back up generation, usually at low voltages. However most large power grids also use Diesel generators, originally provided as emergency back up for a specific facility such as a hospital, to feed power into the grid during certain circumstances. Biogas is often combusted where it is produced, such as a landfill or wastewater treatment plant, with a reciprocating engine or a microturbine, which is a small gas turbine.
Photovoltaic panels
Unlike the solar heat concentrators mentioned above, photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly to electricity. Although sunlight is free and abundant, solar electricity is still usually more expensive to produce than large-scale mechanically generated power due to the cost of the panels. Low-efficiency silicon solar cells have been decreasing in cost and multijunction cells with close to 30% conversion efficiency are now commercially available. Over 40% efficiency has been demonstrated in experimental systems.Until recently, photovoltaics were most commonly used in remote sites where there is no access to a commercial power grid, or as a supplemental electricity source for individual homes and businesses. Recent advances in manufacturing efficiency and photovoltaic technology, combined with subsidies driven by environmental concerns, have dramatically accelerated the deployment of solar panels. Installed capacity is growing by 40% per year led by increases in Germany, Japan, California and New Jersey.
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