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PROSPERITY CONSULTING GROUP

Architect – Engineer - Planner

18501 Vidora Dr. #A Rowland Hts, Ca 91748

www.e-Architect.us

www.e-Engineer.us

www.e-Planner.us

PROSPERITY CONSULTING GROUP

Architect – Engineer - Planner

18501 Vidora Dr. #A Rowland Hts, Ca 91748

www.e-Architect.us

www.e-Engineer.us

www.e-Planner.us

Prosperity Consulting Group 2005, All rights Reserved Prosperity Consulting Group 2005.

Architectural education 
In 1814 Thomas Jefferson (the United States' only architect-president) proposed that a professional curriculum in architecture be established in the School of Mathematics of the University of Virginia. Unfortunately, the search for an appropriate architect/mathematician was fruitless and the University of Virginia delayed its entrance into the architectural field for many years. Instead, formal architectural education in the United States began in 1865 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, five years after the institution's founding. MIT's action was followed in 1867 by the University of Illinois at Urbana and in 1871 by Cornell University. The universities of Toronto and Montral started the first schools of architecture in Canada in 1876.
The Morrill Act, passed by the US Congress in 1862, had great and lasting repercussions for higher education, including architecture. In exchange for land granted by Congress, colleges were expected to provide "practical" education for America's youth. This contrasted strongly with European traditions that more clearly separated education and training: at the university you were "educated," and, once in the office, you were "trained." Of course, not all institutions of higher education founded since then have been "land-grant" colleges, but the tradition the system developed was a pervasive one, particularly in the south, midwest, and west. 
The European tradition, however, is a second important historical thread in North American architectural education. Many people considered the system described above rather uncouth. Looking to Europe for a standard, as Americans often did in the nineteenth century, eyes settled on the prestigious Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris as the ultimate in architectural training. The Ecole's philosophy was imported to the United States, and most architecture schools in the early part of this century had at least one Paris-trained professor. If you were the "unfortunate" graduate of a school devoid of such influence, you could always go to an academy in New York and learn the mysteries through a graduate course taught by an exclusively Beaux Arts staff. Or you could go to the Ecole des Beaux Arts for a year, as over 500 Americans did between 1850 and 1968, when it closed. The grand prize of almost all superior fellowships and competitions of the time was specifically for travel to Europe to study examples of the "masters" and their successors.
Canada was also importing a number of Beaux Arts-trained teachers at this time, especially in the French-speaking provinces. Because Canada had stronger ties with England and Scotland than did the United States, however, many of Canada's first professors came directly from the British Isles.
The cornerstone of the Beaux Arts system was the "design problem" assigned to the student early in the term and carefully developed under close tutelage. It began as an esquisse, or sketch problem, and ended en charrette. Charrette, French for "cart," refers to the carts in which the finished drawings were placed at the deadline hour for transport to the "master" for critique. The Beaux Arts teaching systems relied heavily on brilliant teachers and learning-by-doing. Competition was intense and the end results were beautifully drawn projects in traditional styles which were often defensible only on grounds of "good taste" and intuition. The style was mostly neoclassical and the favorite building type was the monument. Projects were judged by a jury of professors and guest architects, usually without the students present. The jurors used the same criteria by which the students designed-"good taste." (Most schools still use some type of "jury" or review system today.)
In the early part of this century, both the United States and Canada were developing cultures of their own and outgrowing their European dependence. The power of individualism affected architecture no less than it did all other aspects of American culture. With the advent of "modern" architecture in Europe, the growing fame of the Chicago skyscraper idiom, and Frank Lloyd Wright's "Prairie School" architecture, intense pressures for change began to build in architectural education.
Like all emerging disciplines, architectural education grew up under very different roofs on different campuses, usually depending on the nature of other colleges already established at the time the decision was made to offer architecture programs. There are separate and autonomous schools or colleges of architecture; departments and programs within graduate schools; schools of art or design; schools oriented toward engineering, technology, or sociology; and, more recently, schools of urban planning and design.
Columbia University made a dramatic shift in 1934 away from the French methods toward those of the modern German movement exemplified by the Bauhaus school. The Bauhaus, formed in 1919, moved to its famous Dessau, Germany, location in 1925, but was closed down by the Nazis in 1933. The influence of that school was felt throughout the world. Its director, Walter Gropius, said that design was neither an intellectual nor a material affair but simply an integral part of modern concepts of mass production and modern technology, which the Beaux Arts had refused to accept. Instruction at the Bauhaus was of a practical nature, providing actual work with materials in the shops and on buildings under construction.
In 1936, Walter Gropius came to the United States and from 1938 to 1952 was head of the architecture department at Harvard University. Also in 1936, Harvard integrated architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning into a single school-the triangular model of many schools of environmental design today. Gropius' distinguished colleague from the Bauhaus, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, also came to the United States and become the head of the architecture school at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1938.
As the architectural curriculum expanded beyond the art of rendering to include utilitarian subjects such as mechanical equipment and structural analysis, the standard four-year program began to bulge at the seams. There was also a growing tendency to include work in crafts and fine arts. The first school to adopt a five-year professional program of study in architecture was Cornell University, which did so in 1922. By 1940 almost all architecture schools had a standard course of five years leading to a Bachelor of Architecture degree.
The last 30 years have demonstrated that there is a great deal more to the building disciplines than ever realized in the previous 2,000 years. In the forties, Harvard's Joseph Hudnut made a list of all the subjects that he deemed essential for a sound and complete architectural education. When the list was complete he calculated the length of time it would take to learn everything on it-22 years. While this is ridiculously long, the pressures for the modern architect to know more and assume greater responsibility have had their effect, even when tempered with the realization that not all need be learned in school.
The "four-plus-two" program became a model for expanding the professional curriculum in the 1960's. This program usually took the form of a four-year course of study in environmental design followed by two years with a strong concentration in architecture. A report by the American Institute of Architects' Special Committee on Education published in 1962 has been generally recognized as the impetus behind this development. The first such programs in the United States were developed at the University of California, Berkeley, and Washington University in St. Louis. Many schools stayed with the five-year Bachelor of Architecture program, however, confident that within its time constraints they can provide both a liberal and a professional education.

Another pattern that emerged in the 1960's recognized the possibilities of studying architecture solely at the graduate level. Many schools offer graduate professional education for students whose undergraduate degrees are in fields as diverse as philosophy, languages, and physics. The idea of professional programs offered exclusively at the graduate level recognizes the option of having a solid university education before embarking on a professional education. 

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